272 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION not merely to science, but to morality and religion. The begin- nings of wisdom for every child, indeed, must come through the objects around him, since " nothing comes into the understanding in a natural way but through the senses." But mere seeing and hearing is not enough: even the animals see and hear, and they remain dull and unintelligent. The child must study nature in the light of human knowledge, and get his understanding " en- franchised " and his heart enlightened. The whole world is full of meaning, both intellectual and moral, and it is the task of the teacher to help the child to discover it for himself. In this con- nection the need for a study of language becomes apparent. The transition from sense-experience to understanding implies the use of words. " We note the child goes on with ease and delight when the understanding and the tongue are drawn along parallel lines, one not a jot before another." And obviously, as Woodward strongly insists, the words must be those of the child's native language : " The mother tongue is the foundation of all." The method of language study is similar in principle to that of nature study: it must be based directly on personal experience. " More than a year since, the child could call unto his mother, the maid, and the man, John and Joan both. He hath set his mother a stool or some such thing. He hath picked an apple and a nut, cherries also out of her lap and pocket. AH this he hath done. Then he told her what part of speech these are, how proper some, how common other some, what gender he, what she, and that the stool was neither of both. Tell him of sharp and sweet, he will not be satisfied till he have the thing, be it grapes, vinegar, apples, honey, sugar, etc. Now he knows his adjective, no man better. He relishes it on his tongue's end." So he goes on through grammar and syntax; and the conclusion reached is that if grammar can enter in this fashion at " the gate of the senses, all sciences will follow by the same light and at the same doors."* The special attention bestowed on the schools during the Commonwealth makes evident the profound faith in education which lay behind the Puritan discussion of the subject. Not only were the existing schools carefully conserved in the midst of violent ecclesiastical changes, but a considerable number of new schools were established in Wales and the north of England * Foster Watson, English Grammar Sch&t* M 1660, pp. 291*292.